Didactic and technological innovation in language and culture didactics:
historical approach and current problems
The history of the didactics of languages and cultures since the end of the XIXe century shows three main models of the relationship between didactic innovation and technological innovation: (1) the model of didactic determinism, which privileges didactic factors: it would be the didactic evolutions that would lead teachers to resort to such or such new technology; (2) the model of technological determinism, which privileges technological factors: (3) the convergence-divergence model: didactic innovations and technological innovations would only bring about lasting change - i.e. they would only be widely disseminated and sustained - if they met, and in the absence of more powerful divergent factors of other types (psychological, managerial, technical,...). As for the current situation, it shows a series of strong convergences between the two didactic innovations simultaneously in progress - the actional perspective and the plurilingual approach, which are themselves convergent - and the technological innovation in progress, namely the digital.