In this section are gathered, with their links and summaries, all the texts in English that can be found on this site www.christianpuren.com.
They are identified by " -en " at the end of their code: "2014a-en", "066-en", etc.
This section is updated each time a new text in this language is published.
I am very grateful to my colleague from the University of Izmir (Turkey), Ahmet ACAR, who kindly took care of these translations.
Section "Mes travaux"
- 2022e-en. "The epistemology of the didactics of languages-cultures, a complex epistemology for a complex discipline". Epistemological questioning in a discipline is a sign of disciplinary maturity. The didactics of French as a foreign language has thus moved from (1) an initial perspective, until the 1960s, of a "methodological" type, in which "methodologists" thought they could find the right answers to the problems they had identified; (2) to a "didactic" or meta-methodological perspective, in the 1970s, in which methodological problems become problematic because "didacticians" have become aware that the answers can only be contextual, i.e., plural, local, partial and temporary; (3) finally, in the 1980s, to the "didactological" or meta-didactic perspective, in which didacticians question their own discipline from the ideological, ethical or, as the coordinators of this book invite, epistemological point of view. After presenting the main characteristics of an epistemology adapted to the didactics of languages and cultures, i.e., a complex one, and its consequences for teacher training and teaching-learning practices, the author shows that they are particularly interesting in the didactics of languages for specific purposes, because they make it possible to allow the language class to function as an incubator of professional skills.
English translation of « L’épistémologie de la didactique des langues-cultures, une épistémologie complexe pour une discipline complexe », chap. 6 pp. 187-195 in : 0'CONNELL Anne-Marie & CHAPLIER Claire (coord.), Épistémologie à usage didactique, Langues de spécialité (secteur LANSAD), Paris : L'Harmattan, 2019, 266 p.
- 2022d-en. "Felix dubitatio! Uncertainty and complexity in didactics of languages and cultures". English translation of "Felix dubitatio ! Incertitude et complexité en didactique des langues-cultures", EDL. Études en Didactique des Langues, revue du LAIRDIL, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire de Recherche en Didactique LANSAD, IUT A - Toulouse III, NQ° 37 "L'incertitude / Uncertainty"), MAY 2021, pp. 51-68. The complexity of the objects and processes that are constitutive of the didactics of languages and cultures, as well as the diversity and heterogeneity of learners, structurally confront the teachers with complexity, and therefore with uncertainty. This is the reason why most teachers have always implemented an empirical eclecticism in their classrooms, instead of the necessarily simplifying coherence of all the constituted methodologies that their institutions often want to impose upon them. It is for the same reason that the discipline, when it finally took this complexity into account, had to add to its first “methodological” perspective, first the “didactic” (or meta-methodological) perspective in the early 1970s, and then the “didactological” (or meta-didactic) perspective, from the early 1980s. This historical evolution of the discipline came up against, and continues to come up against, three forms of reductionism: theoretical, technological and practical applicationism; the second, reactivated by the emergence of digital technologies, has recently been reinforced by the intensive use of these technologies to ensure the so-called “pedagogical continuity”. This article proposes what the author calls, alluding to the current pandemic, “some off-patent components of the anti-certainty vaccine”: teacher training in the epistemology of the discipline, “learner-centeredness” and the “project approach”. The author concludes with the idea that since the language classroom is a place and a time for collective learning in a complex environment, it can function as an “incubator” for the skills now required in a professional world that is also confronted with complexity and uncertainty.
- 2022c-en. "Didactic and technological innovation in language and culture didactics: historical approach and current problems". The history of the didactics of languages and cultures since the end of the XIXe century shows three main models of the relationship between didactic innovation and technological innovation: (1) the model of didactic determinism, which privileges didactic factors: it would be the didactic evolutions that would lead teachers to resort to such or such new technology; (2) the model of technological determinism, which privileges technological factors: (3) the convergence-divergence model: didactic innovations and technological innovations would only bring about lasting change - i.e. they would only be widely disseminated and sustained - if they met, and in the absence of more powerful divergent factors of other types (psychological, managerial, technical,...). As for the current situation, it shows a series of strong convergences between the two didactic innovations simultaneously in progress - the actional perspective and the plurilingual approach, which are themselves convergent - and the technological innovation in progress, namely the digital. English translation from an original French version : Christian Puren, "Innovation didactique et innovation technologique en didactique des langues-cultures : approche historique", Recherche et pratiques pédagogiques en langues de spécialité, Vol. 41 N°1-2022. Also available at: https://journals.openedition.org/apliut/9708 or
- 2022b-en. "Didactic analysis of the postmethod condition of B. Kumaravadivelu: eclecticism and complex didactics of languages and-cultures". Bala Kumaravadivelu Mahwah (henceforth "B.K."), a long-time professor at San Jose State University in California, gained international recognition in 1994 with an article entitled "The Postmethod Condition: Emerging Strategies for Second/Foreign Language Teaching," published in TESOL Quarterly (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages), a widely read journal for teachers of English as a foreign language around the world. In this article, and in his subsequent works, he criticizes all methodologies as being unsuitable for local cultures. His main target is the communicative approach, dominant in international EFL teaching, as an instrument for perpetuating American colonialism, as well as methodological eclecticism, which he considers still dependent on constituted methodologies. Instead, he promotes the construction by teachers of coherent sets of strategies theorized by themselves from their own situated practices. In this long article of 40 pages, I study the evolution of B.K.'s work during his career by means of several personal tools of analysis: the different forms of eclecticism, and their logics; the different methodological matrices available; the methodological, didactical and didactological perspectives of a "complex didactics of language-cultures"; the models as indispensable interfaces between practices and theories; the multi- and pluri-methodological approaches; the characteristics of the communication paradigm; the opposition between the optimization-substitution paradigm and the adaptation-addition paradigm. Although I share B.K.'s main aim, which is to give power back to teachers in the field, by considering them as researchers of their own environments and practices, as well as many of his criticisms of the dominant constituted methodologies, including the communicative approach, I explain in this article my disagreement with some of his analyses and proposals, which suffer in my opinion from two important contradictions: he promotes situated modes of teaching-learning, but he builds his proposals on a single problematic of reference (the effects of the implementation of the communicative approach in the teaching of international English in Third World countries); he denounces the perverse effects of the global coherences of the constituted methodologies, but he promotes the construction by the teachers themselves of their own methodological coherences. It will not be surprising, finally, that I point out in B.K.'s observations, analyses, and proposals, all the problems generated by the fact that he never situates himself within the framework of a didactic of languages-cultures constituted as an autonomous discipline. English translation of a French article (2022b), April 2022.
- 2013e-en. “The shift from the paradigm of communication to the paradigm of action, and its implications for practical implementation of the social action-oriented approach”, www.researchgate.net/publication/349829876 (March 2021), www.christianpuren.com/mes-travaux/2013e-en/. This 9-page text based on this short lecture (less than 20 minutes) is essentially based on ideas and illustrations that I have already presented elsewhere (see bibliography included in the text). With the new purpose of training a social actor, the paradigm of action is certainly one of the foundations on which the action perspective has been built over the last ten years. English translation of the original article : "Le passage du paradigme de la communication au paradigme de l’action, et ses implications dans la mise en œuvre pratique de la perspective actionnelle” (2013e).
- 2021j-en. "Learning an L2 at School not Primarily to Communicate in L2, but to Better Inform Oneself and Act in L1 in One's Country", pp. 25-43 in: ACAR Ahmet (ed.), Training social actors in ELT [English Language Teaching], Ankara: Akademisyen Kitabevi A.Ş., 231 p. (Reproduction of the 1st page of the article.) Abstract by the editor of the book : In his second chapter, Learning an L2 at school not primarily to communicate in L2, but to better inform oneself and act in L1 in one's country, Puren deals with the issue of the relevance of social action-oriented approach for ELT (English language teaching) in Turkey, which has implications for other countries like Turkey, where people do not mainly live and work together in a foreign language. Puren, first of all, criticizes the fact that in the communicative approach, communication is considered both as the means and the goal, and considers that it is necessary to move from this paradigm of communication to the paradigm of action, in which communication is only a means at the service of action. Thus, he argues that “in a school teaching of an L2, the objective of communication must be rationally weighted in relation to the general finalities and objectives of the educational system and in relation to the real needs of society in terms of real uses of the L2, even if this weighting is a matter of concern for those responsible for the educational policy of each country”. In line with this observation, he contends that “the most frequent information needs in a foreign language, in Turkey as elsewhere, are those that are satisfied at a distance by means of consulting documents: the foreign language is mainly used to better inform oneself in one's own country”. He also argues that “learning an L2 at school can also be used to learn to ‘act better in one's country’, whether as a citizen or as a professional” since he considers the classroom, in the social action-oriented approach, as an “incubator of social competencies”, a critical stance against the communicative approach, which considers communication as the ultimate goal of foreign language teaching. To order this book.
- 2021i-en. "Integrative Functions of the "Mini-Projects" of the Didactic Units of Language Textbooks in the Social Action-Oriented Approach (SAOA)", pp. 9-24 in: ACAR Ahmet (ed.), Training social actors in ELT [English Language Teaching], Ankara: Akademisyen Kitabevi A.Ş., 231 p. (Reproduction of the 1st page of the article.) Abstract by the editor of the book: Christian Puren, the major developer of the action-oriented approach just after the publication of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR, 2001), which sets the goal of training learners as social actors, contributed to this edited book with his two chapters. In his first chapter, Integrative functions of the "mini-projects" of the didactic units of language textbooks in the social action-oriented approach (SAOA), Puren examines “three forms of didactic integration that an adapted "project pedagogy" makes it possible to achieve in language textbooks: the integration of the different areas of activity, the integration of the different spaces of teaching-learning-use, and the integration of the different methodological matrices with their documentary logics and their components of cultural competence”. Thus, Puren indicates, in detail, that “one of the functions of the didactic unit of the textbooks, is to ensure the coherence and synergy of the contents and activities of these different spaces”, and also that the pedagogical projects have “the feature of integrating different spaces: (The class as a (micro-)society in its own right, the outside society simulated in the classroom, the classroom as a didactic space and the external outside school-society), the pedagogical projects make it possible to integrate these different spaces themselves, calling for all the methodological matrices. To order this book.
- 2021h-en. "Writing the research in language and culture didactics". English translation (August 2021) of: Cours en ligne “Écriture de la recherche en Didactique des langues-cultures” (Online course "Research Writing in language and culture Didactics”) Chapitre 1: “Recherche et écriture de la recherche”. Also available on ResearchGate (August 2021): www.researchgate.net/publication/353756835. Version originale française disponible.
- 2021g-en. "Information Literacy in a Social Action-Oriented Approach: From Communicative Competence to Informational Competence", ESBB, English Scholar Beyond Borders (online magazine, www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/), vol. 1, Issue 1, 2021, pp. 50-62. The author of the article shows that the authors of the CEFRL clearly distinguish between the communicative approach, where the tasks are (inter)individual and isolated communicative language tasks, and the "action-oriented approach", where the actions have a social dimension: so, they are necessarily more or less complex projects in which some of the tasks may be non-language tasks, and in which they are only elements of an overall action scenario. The author of the article draws from this, with concrete examples, one of the major implications that the authors of the CEFRL were unable or unwilling to draw, namely the shift, in terms of teaching-learning objectives, from communicative competence to information literacy, defined as the ability to act on and through information as a social actor, as defined for example by UNESCO in a 2008 book. Original English version, ESBB, English Scholar Beyond Borders (online magazine, www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/), vol. 1, Issue 1, 2021, pp. 50-62. Also downloadable on the website of the magazine at: www.englishscholarsbeyondborders.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Christian-Puren.pdf and on ResarchGate at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353688628.
-2021f-en. "Modeling of the types of approach to methodological variation in language-cultures didactics: between eclecticism to complex didactics". Eclecticism is considered here as "a mode of management of methodological variation", an appellation which has the advantage of covering the different types of eclecticism which have appeared to me in the course of my personal research, those of the authors of textbooks in the 1980s (presented in my Essay on Eclecticism, 1994e) those of specialists in the teaching-learning of language-cultures from the 1880s to the 1990s (on the basis of the corpus treated in my History of Methodologies, 1988a), as well as the mode of management of methodological variation that I propose within the framework of the "complex didactics" described in my 2003 manifesto article (2003b), and that I have recently developed under the names of "multimethodological approach" and "plurimethodological approach" (2020f, chapters 3 and 4). The comparative analysis of these different modes required the mobilization of four notional groups: practice-theoretical-modeler, positive-negative, product-process, learner-teacher-manual-institution-discipline. In addition to a more rational comparative description of the different forms of eclecticism, this research has made it possible to reveal the specificities of the methodological variation management mode in complex didactics: it is "model" oriented, and at the same time product-discipline (the products of didactic research), process-teacher (with the indispensable adaptations of the implementation of these products by the teachers according to their environment) and process-learner (with the equally necessary leeway for learners to bring their own learning strategies into play). Posted online July 1, 2021. French version available (2021f). Also downloadable at:
www.researchgate.net/publication/352786300, June 2021.
- 2021e-en. "The problematic of 'innovation' in language and culture didactics: a proposal for a conceptual modelling". This article proposes modelling of the notion of "innovation" in cultural language didactics in the form of five pairs of antagonistic concepts illustrated by examples taken from the history of the discipline: innovation and continuity, innovation and conformism, innovation and myths, innovation and regression, innovation and change. This problematization leads to a modification of the perception that one may have of the evolution of the discipline, and it finally imposes the idea that it is necessary to modify the still largely dominant conception of change. English translation of French original 2021e. Also downloadable at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353588258, August 2021.
- 2020e-en. Attempt at problematization and modeling of "distance learning" in educational didactics of languages-cultures: for an engineering of hybridization. English translation of Essai de problématisation et de modélisation de l’« enseignement à distance » en didactique scolaire des langues-cultures : pour une ingénierie de l’hybridation, 1e éd. électronique septembre 2020, 56 p. This essay deals with the so-called in French “Enseignement à Distance” ("Distance Teaching"), renamed here "Hybrid Teaching-Learning" (HTL, in English “Blended Teaching-Learning”) because, from the author's perspective of school didactics, it crosses the fundamental disciplinary problem of the teaching-learning relationship with that of the face-to-face-distance relationship. Its objective is to propose activation and idea generation tools for the design of pluralistic HTL systems. Also available at www.researchgate.net/publication/360354677 (May 2022).
- 2019d-en. CEFRL: this way out! English translation of the Back cover, General introduction and General conclusion of Bruno Maurer & Christian Puren, Par ici la sortie! (2019d). In February 2018, the Council of Europe published, more than 15 years after the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (henceforth “CEFRL”), a Companion volume supposed to complete the 2001 document, with new scales of descriptors, especially for mediation. This late addition ignores all the criticisms of the CEFRL formulated in the meantime, as if this document were the definitive and unsurpassable reference in language-culture didactics. The first three parts of this book, CEFRL: This Way Out!, provide a close critique of these two publications, at the end of which it appears that the project of the CEFRL and its Companion Volume can be summarized in a few words: pretending to deal with teaching-learning-assessment, but in reality, working only to promote a limited and commercial form of assessment, namely certification. In the first two parts, the stranglehold of private interests on the European project of school language teaching is established, with supporting evidence, while the third part highlights the many theoretical and practical dead ends and inadequacies of the CEFRL, in particular its dependence on a single methodology, the communicative approach. The last two parts outline two parallel ways out of the CEFRL, both from a resolutely plurimethodological perspective: an "integrated assessment" that takes into account all the issues at stake in the language teaching-learning process; and an "integrated plurilingual methodology" that draws on the already existing in terms of learners' language repertoires and on the already constructed in terms of knowledge about languages and language-learning competencies. The "exit" of the CEFRL is now open, free and wide: the authors' wish is that researchers, trainers, publishers and teachers borrow it in great numbers, and develop it! (Back cover)
- 2020c-en. "From an internationalized communicative approach to contextualized plurimethodological approaches". Dokuz Eylül University, Department of ELT, İzmir, Turkey, April 2020. Prepared as a contribution to the distance education course: ELT Curricula.
The communicative approach, or task-based (communicative) learning, has unduly occupied almost all the space for didactic reflection and methodological development in the world over the last 40 years. Indeed, this approach is not appropriate for all the goals and objectives of teaching and learning in schools. We will illustrate this point by taking as an example the historical evolution of methodologies in France. The pre-communicative methodology of the 1920s to 1960s, based on the collective reading and oral commentary of authentic documents, is still relevant for students who only want to keep a distance contact with the foreign language-culture. Two post-communicative orientations have become necessary to meet the challenges of living and working together in "a multilingual and multicultural Europe" (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, 2000), namely plurilingual approaches and the action-oriented approach. All these methodological matrices need to be protected and maintained in applied linguistics in the same way as the diversity of languages in the world or biodiversity in nature. The only relevant question is how they can be selected and combined or articulated in language programmes taking into account students, goals, objectives and contexts, especially in relation to local educational cultures. (Mise 21 avril 2020). Also downloadable at: www.researchgate.net/publication/352197831.
- 2019g-en. "Development of the social action-oriented approach and the resulting methodological situation in didactic of languages and cultures". “L’élaboration de la perspective actionnelle et la situation méthodologique résultante en didactique des langues-cultures”, was published in French in the Proceedings of the 2nd International Methodological Colloquium "Methodology of Language Learning . Towards Pedagogical, Didactic and Linguistic Excellence", Thessaloniki (Greece), 3-4 September 2018,
- 2015b-en. "Cultural competence and its different components in the implementation of the social action-oriented approach. A new didactic issue". Original version (in French): 2015b. Also downloadable at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349830124, March 2021.
- 2014a-en. "Communicative approach and social action-oriented approach, two genetically opposed and complementary methodological organisms". English version of 2014a. Also downloadable at: www.researchgate.net/publication/349829905.
- 2013e-en. "The shift from the paradigm of communication to the paradigm of action, and its implications for practical implementation from the social action-oriented approach". English version of 2013e. Also downloadable from ResarchGate.net:
- 2009b-en. "Variations on the theme of social action in didactics of foreign languages and cultures". English translation of the article entitled "Variations sur le thème de l'agir social en didactique des langues-cultures" (2009b). This text is the (much longer) electronic version of an article initially published pp. 154-167 in : ROSEN Évelyne (coord.), La perspective actionnelle et l'approche par les tâches en classe de langue. Paris : CLE international-FIPF, 192 p. Publication of this translation: May 2021. Also downloadable at: www.researchgate.net/publication/351194660.
- 2002b-en. Actional perspectives and cultural perspectives in language and culture didactics: towards a co-cultural co-actional perspective. English version of 2002b, published online May 2021. In this article, the author reviews the succession, in French school foreign language teaching, of the different methodologies that have been developed, by showing how each one has been built on a mode of adequacy between its action perspective (i.e. the actions that it prepares students to carry out in a foreign language) and its cultural perspective (i.e. the cultural competences for which it prepares the students). He defends the idea that the new (social) action-oriented approach proposed in the Council of Europe's Common European Framework constitutes a rupture from the action perspective of the communicative approach, and that it therefore implies a rupture from the cultural perspective that was linked to it, that of the intercultural. Finally, he outlines what the new corresponding coherence should be, which he calls "co-actional-co-cultural perspective", while specifying that in the framework of the "complex didactics" that he promotes, it is not a question of substituting this new coherence for the previous ones, but of adding it to the panoply of instruments already available for the management of the teaching/learning process. This article, published in French in 2002, is the first one that the author wrote on the "perspective actionnelle" ("perspective actionnelle" in the French CEFR, "social action approach" in the English CFERL, upon publication of the final version of this Council of Europe publication in 2001. Also downloadable from ResarchGate.net:
Section "Bibliothèque de travail"
- 066-en. "The five documentary logics currently available (model)". Synthetic resumption of the various available logics of didactic treatment of documents ("literary", "document", "support", "documentation" and "social"), realized from several articles previously published on this site. (English translation of the first version of French original article 066)
- 069-en. "How to integrate the project approach in the classroom on the didactic units of language textbooks". English translation of the document entitled "Comment intégrer la démarche de projet dans le travail en classe sur les unités didactiques des manuels de langue?" (069, juin 2018)
083-en. "The FRANMOBE project, a new approach to the didactic of languages and cultures for specific purposes. Didactic presentation of the FRANMOBE Guide". The present document is the English translation of my "Didactic presentation" of this guide. From a didactic point of view, the FRANMOBE device is part of the Social Action-Oriented Approach and its reference pedagogy, the project pedagogy. It creates an original space between "general French" and the FSP-FUP (French for Specific Purposes - French for University Purposes). Too available at www.researchgate.net/publication/359502637.
Online course chapter
- "Writing the research in language and culture didactics". English translation (August 2021) of: Cours en ligne “Écriture de la recherche en Didactique des langues-cultures” (Online course "Research Writing in language and culture Didactics”) Chapitre 1: “Recherche et écriture de la recherche”, www.researchgate.net/publication/353756835 (August 2021); www.christianpuren.com/mes-travaux/2021h-en/. Version originale française : www.christianpuren.com/cours-ecriture-de-la-recherche-en-dlc/chapitre-1-recherche-et-écriture-de-la-recherche/.