The "3M" Model (Matrix - Models - Methodology)

The mechanism of change, development and adaptation of the methodologies in didactics of languages-cultures: the "3M" Model (Matrix - Models - Methodology)
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This article develops the "3M model" (Matrix - Models - Methodology), which represents the mechanism of change, elaboration and adaptation of methodologies at work in didactics of languages-cultures, a model elaborated on the basis of personal research into the history of methodologies in France and Europe from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day. It is illustrated by four major methodologies that appeared in the French school system and in French as a foreign language during this period: the active methodology (focused on understanding authentic documents), the communicative approach (focused on oral interaction), the plurilingual and pluricultural approach (focused on mediation) and the action perspective (focused on social action). A new methodology emerges as a result of a social change in the intended use goal and use situation of the L2, and a new matrix is formed with these two primary elements, to which are added the action of use and the corresponding language and cultural competences. The new methodology is then generated by applying a range of different models to this matrix: pedagogical, linguistic, cognitive, cultural, methodological, epistemological and ideological. Beyond the example of this particular 3M model, the article shows the value of developing and manipulating models to develop reflection and stimulate creativity in didactics of languages-cultures.

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